Rwanda has a temperate tropical highland climate, with lower temperatures than are typical for equatorial countries due to its high elevation. Kigali, in the centre of the country, has a typical daily temperature range between 12 °C (54 °F) and 27 °C (81 °F), with little variation through the year.

Although Rwanda is located only two degrees south of the equator, Rwanda’s high elevation makes the climate temperate. The average daily temperature near Lake Kivu, at an altitude of 4,800 feet (1,463 m) is 73 °F (22.8 °C). During the two rainy seasons (February–May and September–December), heavy downpours occur almost daily, alternating with sunny weather. Annual rainfall averages 800 mm (31.5 in) and is generally heavier in the western and northwestern mountains than in the eastern savannas.

Natural resources

Rwanda possesses the following natural resources: Gold, Cassiterite (tin ore), Wolframite (tungsten ore), Methane, Hydro power, Coffee, Tea, Arable land and Green beans.

The use of land in Rwanda is largely for arable land, and other purposes. 40 km² of land in Rwanda is irrigated. The table below describes the land use in Rwanda, as of 2011.


Natural hazards in Rwanda include periodic droughts and the volcanic activity of the Virunga Mountains, located in the northwest of the country, along the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Current issues

Current issues concerning the environment in Rwanda include: the result of uncontrolled deforestation for fuel, overgrazing, soil exhaustion and widespread poaching.

International agreements

Rwanda is a party to the following international agreements: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,   Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands. Rwanda has signed, but not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea.

Extreme points

This is a list of the extreme points of Rwanda, the points that are farther north, south, east or west than any other location.

Northernmost point – unnamed location on the border with Uganda immediately north-west of the village of Kagitumba, Eastern province.

Easternmost point – unnamed location on the border with Tanzania in the Kagera River, Eastern province.

Southernmost point – unnamed location on the border with Burundi, Southern province.

Westernmost point – unnamed location on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo in the Ruzizi River immediately south of the DRC town of Bukavu, Western province